Picky eater or problem feeder? Here's how to tell.
An expert explains when it's more than picky eating and when to be concerned.
It’s 5 o’clock somewhere. And by somewhere, I mean your kitchen. Parents everywhere are facing the day’s most challenging questions: “What am I going to feed my kids tonight?” “Will the dinner battle reduce us both to tears?” “How long before I wave the white flag and head to the freezer for the chicken nuggets that will end the fight?” “Will my child EVER eat broccoli?”
You may be thinking, “Am I the only parent in town dealing with dinner drama every night?”
The answer is no. It is reported 25 to 45 percent of typically developing children experience feeding and swallowing problems, while a staggering 30 to 80 percent of children with developmental delays struggle with mealtime (Arvedson, 2008).
Now for the million dollar question: what causes feeding problems? There are several factors that can impede a child’s ability to develop a happy, healthy relationship with food, including: sensory processing disorders, gastrointestional complications, prematurity, and dysphagia.
Food should be fun. And for most of us, it is just that. But children may not see eye to eye with us when it comes to mealtime, causing this to become a stressful time for the whole family. Little ones can be incredibly stubborn when it comes to food choices.
Most parents have described their children as picky eaters at least once or twice. However, it is important for parents to know the difference between “picky eaters” and true problem feeders and when to seek assistance.
Picky eating can be a typical stage in normal development. Ready for the skinny on picky eating?
A picky eater will typically:
- Accept approximately 30 foods. That may sound like a lot, but it’s really not.
- Tolerate a new food on his or her plate and may even taste it once or twice. This new food may become a new favorite. But then again, it might get tossed on the floor. This truly depends on the child’s sensory reaction to the food in question.
- Eat meals with his or her family, but requires different preferred foods.
- Eat only one food from each food texture category (puree, crunchy, solids,etc).
- Consume one preferred food consistently, and then suffers “burn out” and refuses to eat this food for a period of time (picky eaters will usually begin to accept this food again after a brief break).
- Eat new foods after frequent exposure.
So, how can you nudge your picky eater toward the leafy greens and save your sanity? Here are a few simple suggestions for success at the dinner table regardless of whether you’re serving pizza or brussel sprouts.
1.Develop a routine and stick to it. Offer meals and snacks at about the same time each day
2.Don’t force feed or bribe your child to eat. This will likely increase refusal behaviors or even worse, bring on a power struggle.
3.Offer a variety of foods, including 1 to2 of your picky pumpkin’s favorite items, at the family meal.
4.Persistence is key! Remember not to shy away when he shudders at his first taste of peas. You may need to offer those peas up to 20-25 times before he will tolerate them.
5.Explore food with your child. Talk about the way it looks, smells and feels. Invite her into the kitchen to help you prepare the foods. Bring her along to the grocery store or farmer’s market to choose a new fruit or vegetable. Star fruit? Why not?! Eggplant? Coming right up!
6.Make it fun! Serve fruits and veggies with dips. Use cookie cutters to make a Shamrock Sandwich for St. Patrick’s Day or Santa for Christmas. Eat dinner by candlelight. Serve breakfast for dinner. Better yet, have everyone put on their coziest jammies for a pancakes and PJ’s party. Get creative!
7.Practice what you preach! This means you, parents. If you want your little ones to eat salad for dinner, you will need to dive into that bowl of greens yourself and forgo the drive-thru on your way home. Our children are always watching and learning from our actions and habits.
8.Don’t become a short-order cook. If your child refuses the family meal, it can be tempting to head back to the kitchen to whip up the macaroni and cheese he is coveting. Resist! This may promote picky eating.
Now, let’s get down to business. While picky eating can be frustrating, it is a typical stage in normal development. However, problem feeding is a true disorder that requires specialized assessment and/or intervention and is downright disheartening for parents. A child that does not eat well can evoke feelings of anxiety, fear, and helplessness, leaving caregivers struggling for a solution.
A problem feeder may:
- Eat fewer than 20 foods.
- Refuse the bottle/breast or drink a small amount and then refuse during infancy.
- Refuse an entire texture category (for example, a problem feeder may refuse to eat all pureed foods).
- Not accept new foods on his plate and may cry, scream or tantrum at the sight of a new food. Problem feeders may even gag or vomit at the sight of an offensive foods.
- Be unwilling to try new foods, despite multiple exposures.
- Eat the same food over and over, but once he experiences “burn out,” he will most likely not go back to eating that food. This will cause him to slowly, but surely, shrink his group of tolerable foods.
If your child is showing symptoms of problem feeding, talk to your child’s pediatrician regarding a feeding evaluation by an occupational therapist or speech-language pathologist. A thorough evaluation is necessary to determine the best course of individualized treatment for your child.
Hang in there, parents. There IS hope! Our feeding therapists are trained to help your child with a wide array of feeding difficulties.
Resources for Parents:
About the author
Amanda Fyfe is a speech-language pathologist at Cook Children's in Arlington and Mansfield. Speech/language pathologists focus on oral motor, speech, language and communication skills to enhance development, restore function and to prevent disability from pediatric conditions, illness or injury. Click here to find the closest Cook Children's Rehabilition Services near you.