Cutting: Why do kids do it?
Cook Children's experts explain the reasons kids injure themselves.
A study published in Pediatrics shows an increase of kids in the U.S. going to the ER for treatment of self-inflicted injuries, such as cutting. From 2009 to 2012, self-injuries increased from 1.1 percent to 1.6 percent of all visits.
While the increase in self-injuries may not seem that extreme, Lisa Elliott, Ph.D., a licensed psychologist and clinic manager of Behavioral Health for Cook Children’s in Denton, said the study does not tell the entire story. Sometimes the degree of cutting, for example, may not be severe enough to receive medical attention.
Elliott presents to schools, churches and community organizations on the issue of teens and self-harm injuries. She also treats patients in her practice.
“It can be difficult to determine the prevalence of these types of injuries accurately due to the secretive nature of self-harm prevalence,” Elliott said.
Elliott says that the most accurate numbers show that 20 to 23 percent of teens engage in some type of self-injury. The age of self-harm abuse typically begins between the ages of 12 to 14 years old.
Research shows that gender differences appear only to be associated with method of self-injury. Females are more likely to use cutting. Both genders use burning and self-battery. Caucasians are significantly more likely to engage in self-injury than non-Caucasians.
Methods of self-harm include:
- Cutting (70 percent of self-injuries)
- Hitting themselves
- Picking/pulling skin and hair
- Head banging
- Excessive body piercing
Injuries are most commonly found on arms, hands, wrists, thighs and stomach.
"This is something we see quite often, mainly in female teenagers, and it has increased dramatically in the last several years once it became a 'thing' that teenagers do and have seen or heard about," said Corwin Warmink, assistant medical director in the Emergency Department at Cook Children's. "It is a response to stress and anxiety and gives the performer a sense of control and eases their anxiety. It is not a suicidal behavior, but some studies have shown people who perform self-injury are more likely to commit suicide than people who do not. It also can be indicative of a more serious mental disorder."
So why do kids harm themselves?
“Kids who repeat self-harm injuries are often trying to ease some type of intense, overwhelming negative emotion such as anger, pain, anxiety or frustration,” Elliott said. “That’s the most common reason, but the second most common reason is self-punishment. They are expressing anger at themselves. This is strongly connected to self-derogation and criticism.”
Other reasons for self-harm include:
- Interpersonal influence – as a means to garner affection/caring from others, to identify/connect with others who have self-injured, to “belong” or fit in with a peer group.
- Stress management.
- To feel a sense of control over their own body, feelings or life situations.
- To provide a distraction from painful emotions through physical pain.
Kids who engage in self-harm behavior are more likely to tell and seek help from a peer their own age than tell a parent. Usually, adults only become involved if that peer tells a grownup and asks for help for his or her friend. Other times, a teacher or coach hears talk among other teens and steps in to help.
Elliott offers these tips to identify if your child is involved in self-harming behavior:
- Dressing in long sleeve shirts/hoodies even in hot weather.
- Wearing concealing outfits.
- Avoiding activities such as sports and swimming.
- Making excuses for having cuts, marks, wounds on body.
- Finding razors, scissors, lighters, knives in unusual places such as under the bed.
- Spending long periods of time locked up in bedroom or bathroom.