The Doc Smitty looks at what it is and how to treat it
“His cough is sooo croupy!”
When parents report a croupy cough, it means different things. Some parents call bad/deep/dry/wet/rattly coughs croupy.
When I think of “croupy cough,” I mean “barky” like a dog or a seal. We are seeing quite a bit of croup this winter so I thought a quick update might be in order.
Age (When will my kid stop barking?)
The disease typically occurs between 6-36 months (can be as young as 3 mo but usually not older than 6 years).
Season (What time of year does my kid bark?)
Infections typically occur in the fall to mid-winter.
Time (When will my kid bark?)
Most ER admissions for croup occur between 10 p.m. - 4 a.m.. Unfortunately, things really can get worse at night.
Pathology (What makes my kid bark?)
Initially, the virus infects the nose and throat and then spreads downward causing swelling in the area just below the vocal cords. When looking with a camera at this area, there is a lot of swelling and redness (inflammation). The vocal cords themselves can also become swollen, causing them not to close as well. This is what can cause children to have a hoarse quality to their voices when they speak. The speed of the air as it travels through this area coupled with the swelling and inflammation causes the noisy breathing and barky cough.
Recurrence (Why does my kid get croup over and over again?)
Research has shown that some children are more prone to croup than others. I think that this has something to do with shape of the area around their vocal cords, consequently putting them more at risk for difficulty breathing and barky cough with any viral infection.
Treatments (What do I do for my little seal?)
All the treatments listed are intended to reduce the swelling in the vocal cords and below, helping your child to be more comfortable.
- Warm steam – We used to put kids in croup tents where we pumped a humidifier in to get the humidity way up. To achieve the same affect, you can turn on the shower in the bathroom and just sit with the child. You can also run a humidifier in the child’s room.
- Cold steam – Open the freezer door and put the child’s face in front of the steam the freezer emits.
- Steroids – Giving the child steroids by mouth (or a shot in severe cases).
- Racemic epinephrine – This is a specific breathing treatment that currently can only be given in the office or hospital.
Two take home tips:
1. The next time your child is barky, feel free to come in and tell us that your child is “croupy.” However, if your child isn’t sounding like a little seal, it’s helpful to try to find a different word to describe the sound of his or her cough, as there are many different causes for the different sounds of a cough.
2. If I start to explain this process to you in the office, stop me and say, “I got this. I read your blog about it.” Nothing would make me happier.
About the author
Justin Smith, M.D., is a Cook Children's pediatrician. View more from The Doc Smitty at his Facebook page.He attended University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School and did his pediatric training at Baylor College of Medicine. He joined Cook Children's after practicing in his hometown of Abilene for four years. He has a particular interest in development, behavior and care for children struggling with obesity. In his spare time, he enjoys playing with his 3 young children, exercising, reading and writing about parenting and pediatric health issues.